Fact Sheet: Mental Retardation
People with mental retardation develop at a below average rate and experience difficulty with learning and social adjustment.
Research indicates that between 1% - 2% of the U.S. population experiences some form of mental retardation.
- Significantly sub-average general intellectual functioning, which may be indicated by an IQ of 70 or below
- Significant challenges in adapting to living and work environments
Mental retardation is a very broad category that includes a wide range of skills, abilities and support needs.
Mild- needs minimal help in some areas of life, with no help in most areas.
Moderate- needs more help in some areas of life than others.
Severe- needs help in most areas of life.
Profound- needs maximum help in all areas of life.
Most individuals with mental retardation are in the mild to moderate range.
Learning Characteristics of a Person with Mental Retardation
Persons with mental retardation have the capacity to learn, to develop, and to grow. The great majority of these individuals can become productive and full participants in society. However, they do face challenges in learning. A person with mental retardation tends to have one or more of the following characteristics:
Slow rate of learning- Person has the ability to learn, but takes longer to do so
Thinks in a concrete way- Has difficulty with abstract thinking
Difficulties generalizing- Cannot take knowledge learned in one situation and apply it to another
Needs to be taught how to make choices- Has difficulty weighing pros and cons, and applying past experiences to present decision-making
Challenges in setting goals and problem solving- Needs help to figure out problems and determine steps required to reach goals. Tasks that many people learn without instruction may need to be structured or broken down into small steps.
Memory problems- Has difficulty remembering how to complete tasks that take several steps, or that are not routine; training needs to include lots of opportunities for practice and repetition.
Short attention span- Has trouble sticking with an activity or focusing attention for long periods of time
Expressive language- Has difficulty conveying ideas and feelings to other people; explaining that he/she doesnt understand something; and asking questions
American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR)
444 N. Capitol Street N.W.; Suite 846
Washington, DC 20001-1512
Voice: (202) 387-1968; (800) 424-3688
Fax: (202) 387-2193
Web site: www.aamr.org
The Arc of the United States (formerly the Association for Retarded Citizens)
National Down Syndrome Congress
7000 Peachtree-Dunwoody Road, N.E.
Lake Ridge 400 Office Park; Building #5, Suite 100
Atlanta, GA 30328
Voice: (770) 604-9500; (800) 232-6372
Fax: (770) 604-9898
Web site: www.ndsccenter.org
National Down Syndrome Society
Self Advocates Becoming Empowered
P.O. Box 105CI
New Fairfield, CT 06812
Web site: www.sabeusa.org
National self-advocacy organization. Self-advocacy is the name commonly given to the movement of people with mental retardation and other developmental disabilities who speak up for themselves and make their own decisions. Terms often connected with this evolving initiative are increased control, empowerment, and self-determination. Many trainings, support groups, and other opportunities are available.
A self-advocacy bibliography is available at: http://thearc.org/misc/sabib.html